Plants Found Two Miles Under Greenland Ice

first_imgAccording to a press release from University of Colorado,1 remnants of pine needles, bark and grass have been pulled up in an ice core from two miles under the Greenland ice sheet, between the bottom of the ice sheet and bedrock.  This is the first time plant material has been found under the Greenland ice, the report says. The suspected plant material under about 10,400 feet of ice indicates the Greenland Ice Sheet “formed very fast,” said NGRIP project leader Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, a professor at the University of Copenhagen’s Niels Bohr Institute.  “There is a big possibility that this material is several million years old — from a time when trees covered Greenland,” she said.1Lead: EurekAlert.The plant remains held in the researcher’s fingers are the scientific facts.  The deduction that trees covered Greenland sometime in the past is logical.  The millions-of-years scenario is storytelling.  But what amazing facts: how did pine trees grow in a place now seen as one of the biggest deep freezers on Earth?  How did the remains survive decay if the climate change was not extremely rapid?  This is one of many indicators of a past temperate climate in northern latitudes that changed suddenly; remember the redwoods under the Arctic? (see 03/22/2002 headline).(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Archaeology Is Hindered by Evolutionary Assumptions

first_imgWhy was a complex village uncovered in Uruguay called “unexpected”?  Peter W. Stahl (anthropology, Binghamtom U.) asks the question in the Dec. 2 issue of Nature:1Evidence of unexpected complexity in an ancient community in Uruguay is a further blow to the conventional view of prehistoric development in marginal areas of lowland South America.    Archaeological research often reveals unexpected results.  This is common in South America, especially when archaeologists venture off the beaten track to explore unfamiliar areas.  However, our surprise is also a product of our preconceptions.  Recent work in the lowlands of tropical South America clearly bears this out, with discoveries of prehistoric complexity in unforeseen places and/or times.  On page 614 of this issue, Iriarte et al. present another example of precocious development in a hitherto little-explored and under-appreciated area.  The authors refer humbly to their results as unexpected; but given the profusion of surprises elsewhere, why would they be unexpected in the first place?The answer is that for over 60 years, archaeologists have been taught to think certain ways about marginal areas and primitive peoples.  They have been taught an “now-outmoded belief in cultural evolution, culture areas and trait diffusion; environmental determinism; a sketchy archaeological record; and an underestimation of the effects of European conquest on native populations,” Stahl claims.  Authorities like Julian Steward inculcated notions of slow urban development gradually creeping to outlying areas, and ‘traditional Indians’ living out their simple lives, surviving “relatively unchanged since deep time.”  Stahl takes issue with this, noting the number of contradictions with the evidence.  “Although few would buy into these ideas today,” he says, “Steward’s culture history has had an enormous impact on archaeological interpretation, both academic and popular.”    It’s hard to dislodge old myths.  Stahl is not surprised by the complexity of outlying villages, like the one by Iriarte et al. that showed:a large formal village plan, consisting of mound and plaza features, at a time (more than 4,000 years ago) and in a place where conventional wisdom would not have expected them to exist.  Moreover, subsequent occupation, intentional remodelling, settlement planning and village size indicate both a permanence and a density of population previously unthought of for this area.  Innovative analyses of plant microfossils and starch grains extracted from stone tools yield evidence for the early exploitation of maize, squash, beans and root crops in an area that was long considered non-agricultural, at least for prehistoric populations.It appears these people were doing what humans have always done: applying their brains and intentions to organize their lives with intelligence and skill.  This example “not only rejects much of the interpretational baggage carried by generations of archaeologists, but also exposes the potential for prehistoric culture in grasslands and wetlands, which were historically viewed as marginal areas,” he says.  In conclusion, he preaches, “Marginality and atrophied development are part of a flawed historic perspective.  Our expectations for indigenous achievements should be greater.”1Peter W. Stahl, “Archaeology: Greater expectations,” Nature 432, 561 – 562 (02 December 2004); doi:10.1038/432561a.Who gave the scientific world an image of primitive man evolving in marginal areas, living hand to mouth with very slow cultural evolution?  Who portrayed the relatively recent cities as the places where the lights of humanity first went on, and progress slowly spread into the outlying areas?  Was it not the Darwinists in Victorian Britain, who tended to view themselves as the intellectually superior race?  The history of Darwinian racism and treatment of indigenous peoples is a shameful lesson that has no justification today, as Stahl points out.    In contrast, Biblical creationists would see man as always fully man, endowed from the beginning with free will, language, culture and intelligence.  People groups spread rapidly over the globe after the flood, carrying a good deal of cultural memory with them.  Just because they didn’t always make pottery does not mean they weren’t good farmers or knew how to build complex villages.  Creationists would see a gradual degradation of ability because of sin, with occasional collective rises and falls of civilizations; there is also the counteracting tendency for technological knowledge to increase and accumulate over time.  Overall, creationists have greater expectations about indigenous achievements, and therefore are not surprised to find complexity in human cultures from the earliest times.  And that is exactly what archaeology shows: man is always fully man, capable of remarkable achievements, but needing salvation and escape from the “flawed historical perspective” of false teachers.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

ECM: Creating an Active Archive

first_imgActive archiving is the process of tagging and moving infrequently used data from high-performance active storage to more cost-effective storage.  The term Active Archiving is most often applied to structured data stored in a relational database but it can also be applied to unstructured data.Off-loaded data can be stored on cost-effective but lower performance storage media.  Depending on the media selected, the data could still remain on-line, ‘near-line’, or offline and stored on long-term storage media like optical devices or tape.  Some estimates are that only 20% of a company’s data is critical and needs to be stored on high-performance disk storage.The benefits of active archiving are that removing large amounts of rarely used data from a system can dramatically improve application performance and availability.  Further, only active data needs to be backed up on a regular basis, significantly reducing the time needed to perform backups.If off-loaded data ever needs to be recalled, administrators and end users can restore the data on an as-needed basis.Business policies often drive the structure of the active archive process.  In the world of records management, policies are developed that fully specify how to manage the information of a record from its creation to its final disposition.  The policy might specify how the information can be searched, organized, stored and disposed.Active archiving creates tiered storage systems and each tier typically provides a trade-off of storage performance versus storage costs.Some questions that can help structure your IT storage policy include:Which applications and servers store data that are critical to your business?What records can be deleted and when?Which IT assets do employees use and with what frequency?Hitachi Data Systems’ Low Li Kiang recommends the creation of a single active archive for managing content across both commercial and in-house data systems with capabilities of storing both structured and unstructured data.  In that way, operations can be centralized on a single archive while ensuring data security, authentication and integrity.last_img read more

The Unintended Benefit Of An Improved Run Game For Oklahoma State

first_imgMike Gundy talked recently about the benefit of having a good run game. It is straightforward and probably obvious.“Our ability to run the ball a little more effective this year has given us other options when last year it was just protect and keep chunkin’ it down the field, which I’ve never been comfortable with,” said Gundy.“More effective” is a relative term, I suppose because Oklahoma State is only averaging 3.59 yards per carry this vs. 3.58 yards per carry last year. But I don’t think there is any question the run game has improved. Just watching this team move the ball is wildly different, and more of its rushing yards are coming via running backs instead of The General falling forward for a couple of yards. Plus, OSU has allowed more sacks per game this year which brings the average down.There is another unintended benefit linebacker Jordan Burton touched on recently.“It also helps the defense because then we’re not on the field as much,” Burton told the O’Colly about a more established run game. “I think recently we’ve only been on the field 60 to 70 plays. Whereas last year, it was up to 118, 125 plays a game. Guys like that help the entire team. Not just the offense.”The real numbers are 75 plays this year against 77 last year, but a couple of plays a game is a big deal. It adds up. So it’s small, but one of the best things about having a more stable ground attack is that your defense is not playing as many plays overall and it doesn’t feel like it is going right back out there after three incompletions and 10 seconds of actual game time run off the clock.If you’re looking for the comments section, it has moved to our forum, The Chamber. You can go there to comment and holler about these articles, specifically in these threads. You can register for a free account right here and will need one to comment.If you’re wondering why we decided to do this, we wrote about that here. Thank you and cheers!last_img read more

Fair Trading Commission Developing Merger Review Framework

first_img The Fair Trading Commission (FTC) is in the process of creating a formal merger review framework through which various issues are to addressed before a merger takes place.Senior FTC Legal Counsel, Dr. Delroy Beckford, told JIS News that the process will entail legislative amendments; sensitising key sector stakeholders; and conducting ongoing consultations with the existing regulators.“So the FTC will look closely at the issues, conduct interviews with the parties and make [the] best efforts to ensure that consumers are not affected when an acquisition or merger takes place,” he said.Dr. Beckford noted that the Commission has engaged a consultant to assist with drafting the necessary provisions that will inform the amendments to be instituted, in order to fine-tune the framework to deal with mergers and pre-merging notification provisions.“So before this decision, regulators would have taken the view that they are in complete control of their particular sector and that the FTC would not get involved. So we have engaged stakeholders in the regulatory arena to inform them of this decision and the implications,” the Senior Legal Counsel pointed out.Additionally, he said the FTC is conducting seminars on the implications and the way forward regarding harmonisation of the legislation with what obtains in the CARICOM framework.The FTC’s Executive Director, David Miller, who elaborated on the necessity for the review framework, pointed out that while Section 17 of the Fair Competition Act articulates agreements that lessen competition, there is no structured pre-notification system in place for the Commission to examine and make recommendations before a merger takes place.“Right now, firms can go ahead and merge and if we hear about it, we speak with them and try to insert ourselves to have these conditions included. But with a structured pre-notification regime, the law says we (FTC) have to be advised before, we have to look at it (the conditions) and then have discussions with the merging parties,” Mr. Miller explained.He added that, “when entities go ahead and merge and there are issues with consumers, the process of addressing this is very long and arduous through the courts… the FTC may even end up taking these issues to the Privy Council, which takes several years; so the process is very long and drawn out and sometimes benefits are not properly addressed”.Mr. Miller informed that with the new regime, which it is hoped will be in place within a year, the entire process will take three months, from the point when the parties notify the Commission, to the FTC having discussions and delivering a decision.“The whole framework requires a complete set of provisions to be inserted into the legislation. A consultant has already drafted those provisions, and at some point within the next six months, we will be having discussions with the Chief Parliamentary Counsel to draft the legislation, the provisions and to properly fit it into the Fair Competition Act,” Mr. Miller added.Meanwhile, Dr. Beckford has urged the principals of entities considering mergers to be mindful of what now is and will obtain.“I want to disabuse anyone of any misconception that because of the absence of any pre-merger notification framework that there is no enforcement mechanism for mergers and, therefore, one can bypass the reporting process and go ahead and do whatever mergers they want without consulting with us. With this, they run the risk of the FTC looking at those agreements and unravelling them, as the Privy Council allows us to do that. Therefore, the first port of call in regards to mergers should be the FTC, to ensure that those agreements are consistent with the Fair Competition Act,” he stated. Senior FTC Legal Counsel, Dr. Delroy Beckford, told JIS News that the process will entail legislative amendments; sensitising key sector stakeholders; and conducting ongoing consultations with the existing regulators. Story Highlights “So the FTC will look closely at the issues, conduct interviews with the parties and make [the] best efforts to ensure that consumers are not affected when an acquisition or merger takes place,” he said. The Fair Trading Commission (FTC) is in the process of creating a formal merger review framework through which various issues are to addressed before a merger takes place.last_img read more

Elderly woman who pushed 79yearold man wont be charged in his deathRCMP

first_imgHALIFAX – The Mounties have decided against laying charges in the Nova Scotia nursing home death of a 79-year-old man who was pushed by a female resident, fell down and smashed his head on the floor.Gordon Birchell died on Oct. 29 last year, several days after the fatal push at the Ivy Meadows home in the Halifax suburb of Beaver Bank.RCMP spokeswoman Cpl. Jennifer Clarke says in a news release that police ruled it a homicide, but decided against laying charges based on the woman’s “cognitive impairment.”The Halifax man was initially hospitalized at the Cobequid Community Health Centre, but he was returned to the home, where he died as a result of his injuries.Clarke said she could not confirm the woman’s medical condition, but Joan Birchell, the wife of the deceased man, said in an interview she was told by staff the female resident suffered from severe dementia.Birchell said her husband, who suffered from the early stages of dementia, had been pushed by the same woman on repeat occasions, including one occasion when she was present and was also pushed down.She said Tuesday she’s still waiting to hear back from a Health Department investigation into what happened leading up to the fatal push and whether policies and procedures were followed properly.“The investigation should be about the people who were supposed to be watching the woman whenever Gordon was around,” she said in an interview.Birchell said she does not feel the matter should be dropped until more is known about the circumstances that led to the death.“Is it going to be like so many other seniors’ homes where people are dying and nobody is doing anything about it?”Last May, The Canadian Press reported that eight residents of nursing homes in Nova Scotia had died since 2008 due to aggression from other residents, raising questions about why the majority of the deaths were never publicly disclosed.The list of death reports were provided through freedom of information requests made to the chief medical examiner, and included deaths at six homes around the province, with some having multiple incidents.Bonnie Cuming, a friend of Gordon Birchell, has said he was a native of Newfoundland and Labrador and was a former maintenance worker at the school where her husband had worked.“He was a nice man, a sweet, sweet man. … We’re just sick that he died in that way,” she said in a telephone interview.last_img read more

Nova Scotia government accused of meddling in wording of land acknowledgements

first_imgJustin Brake APTN News The Halifax Regional School Board became the third in Canada last year to make land acknowledgements in school mandatory.But APTN News has been told the Nova Scotia government may have been meddling in the wording of acknowledgements.They’re missing the word “unceded”, a term used by most Mi’kmaq to describe the land they never gave away.“It was the office of Aboriginal Affairs that directed us away from it, to start out anyway. And, as well as our lawyers. They told us there wouldn’t be any legal implications, but just because the word is so heavy and without the education a lot of people don’t understand what the word is,” said Jessica Rose, the school board’s Mi’kmaw representative.But some are pushing for the term’s inclusion, such as Rebecca Moore.“With the knowledge that is it unceded Mi’kmaq territory, because that’s something that’s still being challenged by the greater population of Canada, they will know the facts. And it’s a great educational opportunity, and that’s really what this is about,” said Moore.One school principal said it’s important for students to know the truth of where they live and learn.“Unceded lands of Indigenous Peoples — the more they hear that, I’m hopeful that the more they will appreciate our history and what has happened to the Indigenous Peoples of Canada,” said Robert MacMillan, principal of Halifax Central Junior High.MacMillan said he intends to bring his concern of omitting unceded to the school board.“Because it’s an important part of the whole reconciliation process,” he said. “The lands do belong to Indigenous people, and…we haven’t taken it from them — they still own it. We need to acknowledge that.”jbrake@aptn.calast_img read more

The Walker County Sheriffs Office on Tuesday arre

first_imgThe Walker County Sheriff’s Office on Tuesday arrested more than a dozen people accused of selling drugs in the community.Walker County Sheriff Jim Underwood said investigators spent several months and hundreds of hours conducting surveillance, identifying potential drug sellers and then following up with undercover drug buys.Those arrested Tuesday are:Stanley Wayne Dixon, 44, of Parrish, is charged with distribution of a controlled substance. Dixon turned himself in to the Walker County Jail after learning he had the outstanding warrant.Megan Miriah Dunn,, 22, of Parrish, is charged with possession of a controlled substance, possession of drug paraphernalia and CRO violation with no bond.Tyrone Alexander Finch, 40, of Parrish was arrested on two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Trudy Ann Jenkins, 39, of Parrish was charged with distribution of a controlled substance.Demetrius Lee Madison, 40, of Parrish was arrested on charges of distribution of a controlled substance.Eric Auston Ollie, 44, of Parrish, is charged with two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Demetris Antwan Tucker, 27, of Parrish is charged with three counts of distribution of a controlled substance, possession of a controlled substance, and possession of drug paraphernalia.Derius Centrell Gunn, 33, of Parrish was arrested on charges of distribution of a controlled substance. Gunn turned himself in to the Walker County Jail after learning he had the outstanding warrant.Andre Bernard Tucker, 26, of Parrish, is charged with two counts of failure to appear.Melanie Bonner Wolfe, 53, of Cordova, is charged with distribution of a controlled substance.Jimmy Dale Wolfe, 57, of Cordova, is charged with two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Tammy Portzer Jones, 43, of Cordova, is charged with possession of drug paraphernalia.Samuel Ferrell Stebbins, 51, of Jasper, is charged with three counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Mark Alan Scott, 49, of Jasper, is charged with two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Drew Bennett Sargent, 43, of Jasper, is charged with possession of drug paraphernalia.Anyone with information on the location of those who are still wanted are asked to contact the Walker County Sheriff’s Office at 205-302-6464 or send a text message to 847411 (in the body of the message, type “walker,” and then the tip itself).The following eight individuals are wanted on felony distribution warrants:Rodney Oneil Thomas, 39, of Parrish, is wanted for three counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Anthony Dawayne Thomas, 37, of Parrish, is wanted on three counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Caleb Scott Cooksey, 25, of Parrish, wanted for distribution of a controlled substance and violation of protection order.Jake Amon Dunn, 20, of Parrish, is wanted for two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.Byron Lamar Windham, 29, of Parrish, is wanted for distribution of a controlled substance.John Dammon Collins, 38, of Parrish, is wanted for distribution of a controlled substance.Heather Mazell Lott, 36, of Parrish, is wanted for distribution of a controlled substance.Theresa Diane Wolfe, 45, of Cordova, is wanted for two counts of distribution of a controlled substance.last_img read more